Medical Terms

Asthma
A chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. The airways produce extra mucus, and breathing becomes difficult. The most common asthma signs/symptoms are coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.

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Benign Brain Cyst
Cysts are balloonlike structures with sturdy membranes containing liquids, semisolids, or even gases. A Benign cyst is non-cancerous.

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Congenital Facial Paralysis
Congenital facial paralysis is classified as traumatic or developmental, unilateral or bilateral, and complete or incomplete (paresis). Determining the etiology is important because the prognosis and treatment differ, depending on the underlying pathophysiology. (Andrew’s is traumatic due to a birth injury)

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Dysphagia
People with Dysphagia have difficulty swallowing and may also experience pain while swallowing. Some people may be completely unable to swallow or may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods, or saliva. Eating then becomes a challenge. Often, dysphagia makes it difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish the body.

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Failure to Thrive
Failure to thrive is a description applied to children whose current weight or rate of weight gain is significantly below that of other children of similar age and sex.  The person’s weight falls lower than 3% (as outlined in standard growth charts) or 20% below the ideal weight for their height.

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Fatigability
A tendency to get tired or lose strength easily

GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)/Acid Reflux
A chronic digestive disease that occurs when stomach acid flows back (refluxes) into your food pipe (esophagus). The backwash of acid irritates the lining of your esophagus and causes acid reflux/heartburn.

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G-tube (Feeding Tube)
A gastrostomy tube (also called a G-tube) is a tube inserted through the abdomen that delivers nutrition directly to the stomach. It’s one of the ways doctors can make sure children with trouble eating get the fluid and calories they need to grow.

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Hyperflexible
Also known as double jointed – when a joint is able to bend to a greater than normal degree. Many times due to excessive laxity (looseness) in the ligaments or muscles surrounding the joint.

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Hypotonia
Hypotonia means decreased muscle tone.  A child with hypotonia exhibits a floppy quality or “rag doll” feeling when he or she is held.  Since the muscles that support the bone joints are so soft, there is a tendency for hip, jaw and neck dislocations to occur. Some children with hypotonia may have trouble feeding. A child with hypotonia may also have problems with speech.

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Laryngeal Penetration/Aspiration
Entrance of food or liquid into the top of the airway, which subsequently is forced back out during swallowing.  If it is not successfully forced out, aspiration occurs (see aspiration link below)

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OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder)
An anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce anxiety, by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing anxiety, or by a combination of such thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions).

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Severe Constipation
Severe Constipation is simply very infrequent stools. Severe constipation is defined as less than one bowel movement per week.  Sometimes, it means hard stools, difficulty passing stools (straining), or a sense of incomplete emptying after a bowel movement.

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SMO Orthopedic shoes for Fallen Foot Arches
Plastic Shoe insert worn over socks to help keep foot in proper placement.  Andrew’s size is slightly above his ankle.  See examples below…

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